FORMS OF GENDER BASED VIOLENCE: RAPE!!!
The term sexually and other forms of gender base violence comprises not only rape
and attempted rape, but also sexually abuse, sexually exploitation, force early
marriage, domestic violence, marital rape, trafficking and female genital mutilation.
What is rape:
Rape is when an individual intentionally or forcefully have sexually intercourse with
There are several types of rape. Rape is a violent crime involving sexual acts forced
on one person by another. Rape is technically defined as forced penetration (with any
body part or object) including anal, vaginal or oral intercourse. Rape is illegal and
while the term “rape” specifies penetration, other sexual acts not involving
penetration, when forced on someone, are also illegal.
The forms of rape may be specified based on who is committing the rape, who the
rape victim is and the specific actions involved in the rape. Some types of rape are
considered much more severe than others. For example, any type of rape resulting in
someone’s death is punishable by death in the United States.
Diminished Capacity Rape
The type of rape known as diminished capacity rape is committed when one person
forces sexual penetration on another person who cannot consent to the sex act. People
with diminished capacity can’t consent to sexual acts due to limited physical or
intellectual ability. An example would be a person with an intellectual disability.
Diminished capacity rape also takes place when a person has no ability to consent to
sexual acts due to intoxication.
Another form of rape is age-related. This type of rape is often known as statutory rape
as specified both in federal and state law. In this case, sexual actions with a person
below a minimum age is considered illegal in all cases. Often this age is 12. There is
often another age, known as the age of consent. Sexual acts with a person above the
minimum age but below the age of consent may be considered rape depending on the
perpetrator. Specific ages are specified by state.
Incest is a type of rape dictated by the relationship between the two parties. When the
two parties involved in the sex act are closely related (in other words, they are
family), it is often rape. Examples of incest include:
Parents and children
Uncles and nieces or nephews
Aunts and nieces or nephews
Laws vary by state as to specifically what constitutes incest.
Family members account for 7% of rapists
Partner rape, also known as spousal rape or marital rape, is a type of rape involving a
person’s partner or previous partner (no matter whether the partners are married).
There are three types of partner rape:
4.Battering rape – involving both physical and sexual violence
Force-only rape – involving the imposition of power and control over another
Obsessive/Sadistic rape – involving torture and perverse sexual acts
This type of rape happens between two people that know each other. Often
acquaintance rape is known as “date rape” as the two people involved may be in a
social relationship at the time. Some victims don’t recognize acquaintance rape as rape
but it’s important to remember that consent for sexual activity can be revoked at any
time and a prior relationship does not mean that rape cannot occur.
Two-out-of-three sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows
Aggravated rape is a type of rape defined in the law. Aggravated rape involves:
Forced sex acts by the threat of death or serious bodily injury
Forced sex acts involving an unconscious or drugged victim
Sex acts with children under the age 12.
Physical Effects of Rape
Physical effects of rape can arise from both forced sexual assault and those not
involving forcible submission, such as drug-assisted date rape. Forced sexual assault
frequently causes visible bruising or bleeding in and around the vaginal or anal area
and bruises on other parts of the body from coercive violence. But both forced and
other types of rape can have many other physical consequences:
Painful intercourse (with significant other)
Uterine fibroids – non-cancerous tumors in muscle wall
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) – HIV, genital warts, syphilis, gonorrhea,
chlamydia, and others
Psychological Effects of Rape
Victims experience both short and long-term psychological effects of rape. One of the
most common psychological consequences of rape is self-blame. Victims use selfblame as an avoidance-based coping tool. Self-blame slows or, in many cases, stops
the healing process. Other common emotional and psychological effects of rape
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – feelings of severe anxiety and stress
Flashbacks – memories of rape as if it is taking place again
Borderline personality disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
Distrust of others – uneasy in everyday social situations
Feelings of personal powerlessness – victims feel the rapist robbed them of control
over their bodies.
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